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    ViOLET Chào mừng năm học mới

    advanced grammar

    Nhấn vào đây để tải về
    Báo tài liệu có sai sót
    Nhắn tin cho tác giả
    (Tài liệu chưa được thẩm định)
    Nguồn:
    Người gửi: Hồ Hồng Liên
    Ngày gửi: 18h:37' 29-05-2017
    Dung lượng: 465.0 KB
    Số lượt tải: 6
    Số lượt thích: 0 người
    GRAMMAR 3
    CONTENT
    PHRASES
    KINDS OF SENTENCES
    CLAUSES
    ADJECTIVE CLAUSES (RELATIVE CLAUSES)
    ADVERB CLAUSES
    NOUN CLAUSES
    REPORTED SPEECH
    DANGLING CONSTRUCTION
    SENTENCE TRANSFORTATION
    1. PHRASES

    A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate
    Categories of phrases:
    Prepositional phrase (PP)
    Noun phrase (NP)
     Verb phrase (VP)

    *The Function Of Phrases
    - A phrase may function as a verb, noun, an adverb, or an adjective
    Definition:
    Verb phrase (VP) with a verb as head (e.g. eat cheese, jump up and down)
    2. Function:
    A verb phrase consists of a verb, its direct and/or indirect objects, and any adverb, adverb phrases, or adverb clauses which happen to modify it. The predicate of a clause or sentence is always a verb phrase:
    VERB PHRASES
    Examples
    - Corinne is trying to decide whether she wants to go to medical school or to go to law school.
    - He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore, he decided to make something else.
    - After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
    - We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
    NOUN PHRASES
    Definition: A noun phrase consists of a pronoun or noun with any associated modifiers, including adjectives, adjective phrases, adjective clauses, and other nouns in the possessive case.
    Function: Like a noun, a noun phrase can act as a subject, as the object of a verb or verbal, as a subject or object complement, or as the object of a preposition,
    Examples
    subject
    - Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.
    object of a verb
    - To read quickly and accurately is Eugene`s goal.
    object of a preposition
    - The arctic explorers were caught unawares by the spring breakup.
    subject complement
    - Frankenstein is the name of the scientist not the monster.
    object complement
    - I consider Loki my favorite cat.
    Adjective Phrases

    Definition: An adjective phrase is any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun.
    The adjectival phrases function as adjectives. 
    It does the work of an adjective. 
    It qualifies the noun or the pronoun. 

    Examples 

    The girl with blue eyes is my sister. 



    He is a soldier of great abilities. 



    A stitch in time saves nine. 



    I saw a bird of a rare species. 
    Adverb Phrases

    1.Definition: An adverb phrase is as an adverb that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, clause, or sentence.
    2. The adverbial phrases function as adverbs. 
    It is a modifier. 
    It modifies verb or an adjective or another adverb. 
    Examples

    The Sun rises in the east. 



    He walks not along with us. 



    Man set foot on the moon. 



    The carpenter hit the nail with a hammer. 
    Prepositional Phrase
    PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES usually consist of a Head -- a preposition 
    a prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition.


    The object of the preposition will often have one or more modifiersto describe it. These are the patterns for a prepositional phrase:
    preposition + noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause
    preposition + modifier(s) + noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause
    Examples
    Before class, Josh begged his friends for a pencil.
    The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold.
    The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam.
    CONSOLIDATION
    2. Kinds of sentences
    + statements/declarative sentence
    + Questions/interrogative sentence
    + Exclamatory sentence
    + Imperative sentence
    Statements/Declarative sentence

    This is the most popular and important sentence. It is used to transfer information or declare something. It ends with a period.
    Ex: David plays the piano.
    I hope you can come.
    Interrogative sentence
    * Definition: The sentence that is used to ask question is called an Interrogative sentence. It ends with a question mark.
    Wh-questions:
    Ex: What are you doing?
    Yes/No questions:
    Ex: Are you English?
    Can you speak English?
    Do you learn English at school?
    Tag question
    If the first sentence is affirmative, the second sentence is negative.
    If the first sentence is negative, the second sentence is affirative
    If the former sentence has “never, hardly, rarely, nobody, nothing, the tag question is affirmative.
    Examples
    You are afraid, aren’t you?

    You didn’t do your homework, did you?

    He never visits you, does he?

    Nobody has prepared the lesson, have they?

    Exclamatory sentence
    The sentence which expresses strong feeling or emotion such as sorrow, joy, surprise, wonder, etc. is called an exclamatory sentence. It ends with an exclamation mark.

    Exclamative sentence
    Countable nouns:
    What + a/an + adj + noun!
    Ex: What a lazy student!
    What an interesting book!
    What beautiful flowers!
    What tight shoes!
    What + adj + nouns!
    What + adj +noun!
    Ex: What beautiful weather!
    * Note:
    Exclamative sructure with “what”
    “what adj + noun + subject + verb.
    Ex: What delicious food they served!
    (họ phục vụ thức ăn ngon quá)
    What a lovely house they have!
    (bạn có căn nhà xinh quá)
    2. Exclamative sructure with “how”:
    How + adj + S + V!
    Ex: How cold it is!
    How interesting that film is!
    How well she sings!
    Imperative sentence
    *
    It give commands. It usually ends with a period, but they can also end with an exclamation mark.
    Ex: Water the plant.
    Water the plant!
    Direct Imperative sentence
    Take that chewing gum out of your mouth.
    Stand up straight.
    Give me the details.
    * For direction:
    Open your book.
    Take two tablets every evening.
    * For invitation
    Come in and sit down. Make yourself at home.
    Have a piece of this cake. It`s delicious.
    Use “do” make The sentence which expresses order, command, request, advice or suggestion is called an Imperative sentence. “more polite”

    Do be quiet.

    Do come.

    Do sit down.
    3. Classify sentence structures
    Simple sentences

    Compound sentences

    Complex sentences

    Compound-complex sentences

    Simple sentences

    *Definition: is a sentence with only independent clause.

    Ex: We were sorry. We left. We did not meet all the guests.

    We felt the disappointment of our friends at our early departure.
    Compound sentences
    A compound sentence has two or more simple sentences or independent clauses joined together. Each clause is of equal importance and could stand alone.
    Compound sentences
    1. Compound Sentences with Coordinators:
    (Coordinating Conjunctions)
    Independent Clause, + Coordinator + Independent Clause
    Examples
    for - Your decision is important, for our future plans depend on it.
    and - The exam was quite easy, and most students passed.
    nor - He didn’t come to the class during the last three weeks, nor did he take the final exam.
    but - The exam was quite easy, but most students failed.
    Or - Will you write your thesis this semester, or will you wait until the next semester?
    - Europeans should change their smoking habits, or they will risk developing lung cancer.
    yet - Many Japanese smoke, yet the Japanese have long life expectances.
    So- He didn’t study, so he didn’t pass the exam.
    Compound sentences
    2. Compound Sentences with Conjunctive Adverbs:
    Independent Clause; + Conjunctive Adverb, + Independent Clause
    Complex sentences

    A complex sentence is a sentence that has a main (independent) clause and at least one (dependent) clause.
    A main (independent) clause has a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a sentence.
    A subordinate (dependent) clause also has a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand alone because it does not express a complete thought; it depends on the main clause.
    A subordinate (dependent) clause begins with a subordinating conjunction (such as when, because, although, after, who, etc.)
    In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other one. The more important idea is placed in the main clause, and the less important idea is placed in the dependent clause
    Examples
    When I was a child, I used to go swimming every morning.
    I wonder if I can ask you a small favor.
    We went to the park where we saw him last night.
    Although women could own property, they could not vote.
    That the earth’s temperature is rising concerns scientists.
    Compound-complex sentences
    A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
    Examples
    Although I like to go camping, I haven`t had the time to go lately, and I haven`t found anyone to go with.
    We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.
    I usually use a pick whenever I play the guitar, or I just use my fingers.
    INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
    A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. 
    Every sentence contains at least one Clause.
    A simple sentence is a clause that can stand alone --- an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.
    EXAMPLES
    Mr. Smith arrived at the airport early this morning.
    We must find a new strategy.
    I play basketball.
    Mr. Smith arrived early this morning, but I didn’t meet him.
    We must find a new strategy, or we will lose our advantage.
    I play basketball, George plays baseball, and Fred plays tennis.
    DEPENDENT CLAUSES
    A DEPENDENT CLAUSE functions not as a sentence but as a part of speech (a noun or an adjective or an adverb).  
    Therefore, it cannot stand alone as a sentence.
    It is attached to some part of an INDEPENDENT clause.
    TYPES OF DEPENDENT CLS
    Adverb clauses
    Adjective clauses (Relative clauses)
    Noun clauses
    What is an Adverb?
    It is a word that describes or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective and another adverb, etc.
    Adverb Clause
    What is an Adverb?
    What is a Clause?
    What is an Adverb Clause?
    What is a Clause?
    It is a group of words which form a grammatical unit and which contain a subject and a finite verb. A clause forms a sentence or part of a sentence and often functions as a noun, adjective or adverb.
    What is an Adverb Clause?
    A group of words which contains a subject and a finite verb that describes or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective and another adverb.
    Adverb Clause can be divided into
    1. Time
    2. Place
    3. Manner
    4. Comparison
    5. Reason/ Cause
    6. Purpose
    7. Result
    8. Condition
    9. Concession
    10. Contrast
    1. Adverb Clause of Time
    These clauses are introduced by when, whenever, while, as, before, after, till, until, since and as soon as, during the time that, …
    1. Adverb Clause of Time
    When he arrives, he will tell us the truth.
    Mary was dancing while John was singing.
    The train left as we arrived.
    1. Adverb Clause of Time
    As soon as you have finished your presentation, invite your audience to ask questions.
    After he had got the money, he left home immediately.
    Before you can start trading, you need to register your company.
    2. Adverb Clause of Place
    These clauses are introduced by where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere.
    2. Adverb Clause of Place
    Nobody knows where he has been to.
    He travels wherever he likes.
    They will invest wherever they get profits.
    This is the house where I used to live during my childhood.
    3. Adverb Clause of Manner
    These clauses are introduced by as, as if and as though.
    Please do as I have told you.
    * He cries as if he were mad.
    * He spoke as though he had been the boss.
    * The subjunctive is used after as if and as though to indicate unreality or improbability in the present or past.
    4. Comparision
    This clauses are introduced by as, than, the + comparative
    EX: The more money you invest, the more profit you get.
    The company pays him as much as he expected.
    He spends more than he earns.

    5. Adverb Clause of Reason
    These clauses are introduced by because, since, and as, etc.
    EX: I will consider the question of jobs first because this is your highest priority.
    Since the economic climate has improved, we intend to invest in new plant and machinery.
    As the weather was bad, we cancelled the picnic.
    6. Adverb Clause of Purpose
    These clauses are always linked with so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, etc.
    He arrived earlier so that he would not be late.
    They brought a lot of food for fear that they would be hungry during the trip.
    She brought the credit card in case she did not have enough cash.

    7. Adverb Clause of Result
    These clauses are always linked with so that, so + adj. / adv. + that and such + a + noun + that, etc.
    Tom was so weak that he could not run.
    It was such a strange story that no one believed it.

    8. Condition
    The clauses are introduced by if, unless, provided/ providing that, as long as, even if, only if,…
    There are three basic types: Type 1, Type 2, Type 3
    8. Condition
    If it rains, we won’t have a picnic.
    If I were you, I wouldn’t invest money on that company.
    If he hadn’t sold the gold last month, he would have gotten much interests.
    9. Adverb Clause of Concession
    These clauses are introduced by though, although, even though, no matter how , no matter what, whatever, whoever, whichever, however, wherever, whenever .
    9. Adverb Clause of Concession
    Although local advertising is cheap, it is not as effective as national advertising.
    No matter how smart they are, they are required to do the revision.
    Even though local papers are cheap to advertise in, they don’t have a wide readership.
    10. Adverb Clause of Contrast
    These clauses are introduced by whereas and while
    Although Tom Cruise has been married many times, he remains the man in my dream.

    He has a lot of charisma though he is rather short.

    Even if he is fat and bald, I will still be crazy about him.

    I think of him all the time while he doesn`t even know me.

    * Other words that show contrast are in spite of, despite, however, nonetheless, and nevertheless. However, they are not adverb clause connectors. In spite of and despite are prepositions. They are followed by nouns, not clauses.
    EX: Despite the hard work, he failed the exam.
    In spite of the shocking news, Joe remained calm
    ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
    Adjective Clauses give information about nouns (people, things, places, etc.). 
    They appear after the noun they describe.
    Adjective Clauses are also called RELATIVE CLAUSES.
    Examples
    I never met the man who took my old job.            
    ("who" as the SUBJECT of the clause)
    I never met the man that took my old job.      
      ("that" as the SUBJECT of the clause)
    ["Who" or "that" refer to people.]
    It was a job which required a lot of reativity.     
    ("which" as the SUBJECT of the clause)
    It was a job that required a lot of creativity.     
       ("that" as the SUBJECT of the clause)


    Examples
    She is a person whom I respect a great deal.        
    ("whom" as the OBJECT of the clause)
    This is a place which I know intimately.                 
      ("which" as the OBJECT of the clause)
    This is a place that I know intimately.                    
      ("that" as the OBJECT of clause).
    I am the person whose car you damaged.               
    NOUN CLAUSES
    NOUN CLAUSES act as simple nouns and identify persons, places, things, etc. 
    They are introduced by words such as:
    “How, if , that, what , when , where, whether, which, who, whom, whomever
    whose, why”
    Examples
    1 . A NOUN CLAUSE AS THE SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE:
    - What he had to say to us was incredible.
    Where we slept is not worth mentioning.
    Whether we will dominate the market is open to question.
    That sales have gone up is good news indeed.
    Who gets the credit for a good idea should not be important.
    Why she said that is a mystery to me.
    Examples
    2  A NOUN CLAUSE AS THE OBJECT OF A SENTENCE:
    I will never understand how we arrived on time.
    I don`t know when he resigned.
    I`d like to see if he can manage it.
    I will hire whomever I like.
    I don`t know which one is best.
    Tell me whose car you are driving.
    Exercise: Adverb Clause of Contrast

    Directions: Choose the correct word to fill in the blanks and complete the sentences:despite    however    even though    although
    while    though    nevertheless    in spite of
    1. The police have been searching for the missing girls.______, no clue is found.
    2. ______ all the effort, John fails his history exam.
    3. You can still gain weight ______ you cut down food.
    4. Plastic flowers keep longer ______ fresh ones are more beautiful.
    5. The evidence sounds convincing; ______, I am not convinced.
    6. Susan feels lonely ______ the number of friends she has.
    7. ______ he is safe from the operation, he hasn`t gained consciousness.
    8. ______ we have looked everywhere, we can`t find the key.
    Answers
    1. nevertheless or however.
    2. despite or in spite of
    3. even though/ although/ though
    4. `While` is the best answers. However, although or though is possible. Even though can`t be used here.
    5. nevertheless or however.
    6. despite or in spite of
    7. even though/ although/ though
    8. even though/ although/ though
    REPORTED SPEECH
    Reported Speech = Quoted Speech = Indirect Speech
    Reported Speech:The narrative (or also called indirect sentence) is saying that we used for narration or tell someone to hear what others say or being said.
    TYPES OF REPORTED SPEECH
    1. Statements
    EX: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.
    2. Commands
    EX: Father: "Do your homework.”
    Father told me to do my homework.
    3. Questions
    EX: Peter: "Do you play football?"
     Peter asked me whether (if) I played football.
    EX: Peter: "When do you play football?"
     Peter asked me when I played football.
    Sentence Transformation
    Structure 1.
    ·  She’s a better tennis player than I am.
      @ I don’t play tennis as well as she does
    Examples
    She’s a better tennis player than I am.
      @ I don’t play tennis as well as she does.
      Britain isn’t as warm as Greece.
       @ Greece is warmer than Britain.
     


    Exercise
                 Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.
       · They don’t speak as fluently as we do.          
    @  We speak ……………………………          
    · No other city in Vietnam is so large as Ho Chi Minh city
        @  Ho Chi Minh city …………………………….
    Structure 2.
       
          
    or
    ·This song is simple enough for all of us to sing.
        @ This song is so simple that all of us can sing it.
    · The house was so expensive that my brother couldn`t buy it.
        @ The house was too expensive for my brother to buy.


    Examples
    Structure 3.
       
      · It’s wonderful to lie on the beach all day.
       @ To lie on the beach all day is wonderful.
     


             Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.
       1. It’s difficult to understand what she’s talking about.
        @ To understand ………………………………
          2. It is very relaxing to spend a day in the country.
          @ To spend ………………………………………
    Structure 4.
       
    Ex:  I advise you not to see her again.
          @ You’d better not see her again.
         · You’d better think carefully before accepting the offer.
          @ I advise you to think carefully before accepting the offer.


            Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.
           · I don’t think you should drink any more coffee.
    @  You`d better …………………………….
           · You had better begin by introducing yourself.
    @   I advise ……………………………….


    Structure 5.
       
       · He’d rather watch TV than go out to the cinema.
        @ He prefers (would prefer to watch) watching TV to going out to the cinema.
     


    Structure 6.
       
     ex: He started working here three years ago.
    @ He has worked here for three years.          
    Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.
       · She last saw him when she was ten.
    @ She hasn’t ……………………………………
      · The last time Jack went swimming was five years ago.
        @ Jack hasn’t …………………………………


    Structure 7.
       
    · She said, "The school opened a year ago."
    @ She said the school had opened a year before.
     
    · `You must wear a tie,` the teacher said.
       @ The teacher told him he had to wear a tie.

     
       

    Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.

    * Robert is sorry now that he didn`t accept the job
    - Robert now wishes..................................
    * What a pity that you can`t come to the shop opening
    - We wish.................................................
    Structure 8
       

        @ If the play were not sold out, I could see it.
         Unless....
         @ If we hadn`t had enough money we wouldn`t have gone on holiday.
    Unless....
    Structure 9.
       
    My wife can`t speak French.
      @ I wish my wife could speak French.
         · What a pity you failed your driving test.
      @ I wish you hadn`t failed your driving test.


    Structure 10.
       
       The police arrested two hundred people.
        @ Two hundred people were arrested by the police.
       · The secretary has just finished the report.
        @ The report has just been finished by the secretary
    Structure 11
    ·  Though he was inexperienced, he got a good salary.
          @ Despite his inexperience, he got a good salary.
               


    Structure 12
    · Because she behaves well, everybody loves her.
    @ Because of her good behaviour, everybody loves her.


    Structure 13
        · We wrote the letter in 2 hours.
         @ It took us two hours to write the letter.


    Structure 14
    John is accustomed to swimming every day
     @ John is used to swimming every day.            


    · When I was a child, my father always read me a story at night before bedtime.
    @ When I was a child my father used to read me a story at night before bedtime.


    Structure 15
    Structure 16
    · He does not have a pen, and he does not have paper.
      @ He has neither a pen nor paper.


    Structure 17
    · Both oil and coal are irreplaceable natural resources.         
    @ Not only oil but also coal is an irreplaceable resource.     
      · She couldn`t skate because of her foot problem.
    @ She wasn`t able to skate because of her foot problem.
     


    Structure 18
        · You should get some experience before you start your own business.
        @ You`d better get some experience before you start your own business.
    Structure 19
       · Could we use your dictionaries?
      @ Do you mind if we use your dictionaries?
    · Can he come to class with me next week?
             @ Do you mind if he comes to class with me next week?


    Structure 20
    Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.
       · My brother didn`t buy that car because he didn`t have enough money.
    @ If my brother ………………………………
      · He smokes too much; perhaps that`s why he can`t get rid of his cough.
     @ If he didn’t smoke ……………………………
    Examples
    * This song is simple enough for all of us to sing.
        @ This song is so simple that all of us can sing it.
    * The house was so expensive that my brother couldn`t buy it.
    @ The house was too expensive for my brother to buy.


    DANGLING CONSTRUCTION
    Definition

    A word or phrase (commonly a participle or a participial phrase) that modifies a word that does not appear in the sentence.
    One way to correct a dangling modifier is to add a noun phrase that the modifier can logically describe. Another way to correct a dangling modifier is to make the modifier part of a dependent clause.

    What is a Modifier?

    A modifier modifies or provides more information. In grammar, adverbs and adjectives are both modifiers. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
    EXAMPLE
    The very happy boy ran fast.
    Happy is an adjective modifying the noun boy. Very is an adverb modifying the adjective happy
    The boy ran very quickly.
    Very is an adverb modifying quickly. Quickly is an adverb modifying the verb ran
    How do Modifiers Dangle?
    Since a modifier has to change, limit or provide more information about something, by definition that means the something it is modifying or limiting has to exist.
    How do Modifiers Dangle? (Cont)
    When we begin a sentence with a modifying word, phrase, or clause, we must make sure the next thing that comes along can, in fact, be modified by that modifier.
    1. Dangling modifiers
    Phrases can also act as modifiers, providing additional information about something else in the sentence. When this occurs, and when sentences become more complex, dangling modifiers can sometimes exist and get lost in the complexity of the language. 
    Dangling Modifiers (cont)
    When we begin a sentence with a modifying word, phrase, or clause, we must make sure the next thing that comes along can, in fact, be modified by that modifier.
    When a modifier improperly modifies something, it is called a "dangling modifier." This often happens with beginning participial phrases, making "dangling participles" an all too common phenomenon. In the sentence below, we can`t have a car changing its own oil.
    Example: Participial phrases dangling
    Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, there is an easy way to keep your car running smoothly.
    If we change the oil every 3,000 miles, we can keep our car running smoothly.
    Example (cont)
    After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing.
    After reading the original study, I find the article unconvincing.
    Example: Infinitive phrases dangling
    To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, an exercise program was set up for the summer months.
    To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, the coaching staff set up an exercise program for the summer months.
    Stashed away in the company storage room for the past twenty years, the owner of the painting has decided to sell it.

    The owner of the painting that has been stored in the company storage room for the past twenty years has decided to sell it.
    2. Misplaced modifiers
    Definition:
    Words, phrases, or clauses that do not clearly relate to the word or phrase they are intended to modify.
    A misplaced modifier can usually be corrected by moving it closer to the word or phrase it should be describing.
    Example
    We rowed the boat vigorously.
    We vigorously rowed the boat.
    Vigorously we rowed the boat.

    + However, you must be careful to avoid misplaced modifiers -- modifiers that are positioned so that they appear to modify the wrong thing.
    2.1 Misplaced Words

    you should place single-word modifiers near the word or words they modify, especially when a reader might think that they modify something different in the sentence
    Example
    After our conversation lessons, we could understand the Spanish spoken by our visitors from Madrid easily.
    We could easily understand the Spanish spoken by our visitors from Madrid.


    2.2 Misplaced Phrases and Clauses

    It is important that you place the modifying phrase or clause as close as possible to the word or words it modifies
    By accident, he poked the little girl with his finger in the eye.
    By accident, he poked the little girl in the eye with his finger.
    3 Squinting Modifiers

    Definition:
    An ambiguous modifier (usually an adverb, such as only) that appears to qualify the words both before and after it.
    A squinting modifier can usually be corrected by changing its position in the sentence.
    An ambiguous modifier (usually an adverb, such as only) that appears to qualify the words both before and after it.
    A squinting modifier can usually be corrected by changing its position in the sentence
    Example
    The marketing team voted to, before they launched the new software, run an anticipatory ad campaign. (disruptive -- the infinitive should not be split).
    The marketing team voted to run an anticipatory ad campaign before they launched the new software.
    Exercises
    The sentences in this exercise contain modifiers
    that are misplaced, dangling, or squinting. Rewrite
    each sentence so that its meaning is clear, logical,
    and unambiguous.
    1. We bought an L-shaped crib for the twins named Double Delight.
    2. By working as a governess, Anna`s tuition at Hunter College was paid for.
    3.At the age of four, my father decided that I should live with my grandmother in Beijing.
    4. Upon arriving at the scene of the accident, Mr. Mooney`s worst fears were confirmed.
    5. While driving along the coastal highway after midnight, a deer suddenly appeared in our headlights.
    6. We saw fire spewing from the engines on the wing, looking out the windows of the plane.
    7. After passing the Spanish exam with the help of my teacher I found a job tutoring a nine-year-old girl.
    8. To repair a jammed chain on a bicycle, the cranks need to be rotated backward while you pull the chain.
    9. The council decided on Wednesday to apply for a grant.
    10. While carrying a tray full of sizzling fajitas, Nancy`s foot got caught on the leg of the counter.
     
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