Tìm kiếm theo tiêu đề

Tìm kiếm Google

Quảng cáo

Quảng cáo

Quảng cáo

Hướng dẫn sử dụng thư viện

Hỗ trợ kĩ thuật

Liên hệ quảng cáo

  • (04) 66 745 632
  • 0166 286 0000
  • contact@bachkim.vn

Understanding and Using English Grammar

Nhấn vào đây để tải về
Báo tài liệu có sai sót
Nhắn tin cho tác giả
(Tài liệu chưa được thẩm định)
Nguồn:
Người gửi: Minh Giang
Ngày gửi: 17h:56' 18-06-2017
Dung lượng: 166.4 KB
Số lượt tải: 5
Số lượt thích: 0 người



CHAPTER 15




Nguyễn Minh Giang 1656110037
Trần Thị Như Huỳnh 1656110057
Nguyễn Thục Quân 1656110093
Mini game
Choose the correct answer :
1. She go to the market ............... buy something.
a. for b. in order to c. in order that
b. in order to
2. Mary is a good friend. She is willing .......... help me when I have difficulty studying. c
a. in b. on c. to
c. to
3. He is very .............. drive car. a
a. young enough to b. enough young to c. young enough for
a. young enough to
4. The box is ........... heavy for Bob to lift. (impossible) b
a. so b. too c. very
b.too
15.1 Infinitive of Purpose : In Order To
  _ In order to is used to express purpose or goals. It answers the question “Why?”.
In order is not necessary for this meaning, so it ofen is omitted.
Eg:
He bought some flowers to give to his wife.
_ A common expression with infinitives of purpose is
IT+ TAKES+TIME/EFFORT+TO INF.
Eg:
It took Justin over five hours to finish the race.
_ (In order) to, not for with a verb is used to express purpose.
Eg:
Alex turned on the TV to watch his favorite gameshow.
For can be used to express purpose, but it is a preposition and is followed by a noun object, For is commonly used with nouns to express individual purpose:
Eg:
I stopped by at his office for a chat about our marketing strategy.)
NOTE :
In order to = so as to = to + verb : express purpose
_ We sometimes say in order (not) to or we can say so as (not) to
Eg:
They spoke quietly so as not to wake the children.

_ In order and so as can be used before a to-infinitive for emphasis in more formal styles


Exercise 2:

3. bread and coffee

4. buy some groceries

5. have my annual checkup

6. a smallpox inoculation

7. stay in good physical shape

8. exercise and recreation

9. buy gas

10. gas
15.2 : ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INNFINITIVES
Exercise 4:
2. careful to lock my doors

3. ready to go home

4. eager to see my relatives again

5. fortunate to have my family

6. ashamed to ask anyone for a loan

7. determined to succeed

8. hesitant to accept it

9. delighted to accept the invitation

10. shocked to learn that he had actually gotten a job.
15.3 : Using Infinitives with Too and Enough
_ We use too when we want to talk about an extreme.
_ The adverb too is often followed by an adjective or adverb and an infinitive. This expression
“ TOO + ADJECTIVE/ADVERD + TO INF ’’
often implies a negative results.
Eg: She is too young to have a boyfriend.
_Too … to can express negative results.
_Enough mean sufficient, something that is ‘sufficient enough’

_Enough follows an adjective: ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH + TO INF
Eg: I am fast enough to swim.
_Enough precedes a noun : ENOUGH + NOUN + TO INF
Eg: We have enough money to go on vacation.
_ In formal English, it may follow a noun :
NOUN + ENOUGH +TO INF
Eg: We have money enough to go on vacation.
Exercise 7:


3. I don’t want to watch a video. It’s too late to start watching a video
4. I don’t want to take a walk. It’s too cold to take a walk.
5. I don’t understand nuclear physics. Nuclear physics is too difficult to understand.
6. I can’t read Jenny a story. I’m too busy to read Jenny a story.
7. My son can’t stay home alone. My son is too young to stay home alone.
8. I can’t climb the mountain. The mountain is too steep to climb.
10. I can walk with the dogs. I’m very tired, but I’m not too tired to to walk with the dogs.
11. I can carry my suitcase. My suitcase is very heavy, but it’s not too heavy for me to carry.
12. I can talk to you for a few minutes. I’m very busy, but I’m not too busy to talk to you for a few minutes.
15.4 : PASSIVE AND PAST FORMS OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS
NOTE:

_ The event expessed by a past infinitive or past gerund happened before the time of the main verb

_ If the main verb is past, the action of the past infinitive or gerund happened before a time in the past
Eg: I appreciated having had the opportunity to meet the king = I met the king in 1995. In 1997, I appreciated having had the opportunity to meet the king in 1995.

_ The past gerund is used to emphasize that the action of the gerund took place before that of the main verb.
Exercise 9:
4. to be invited

5. being understood

6. to be written

7. being hit

8.to be called

9. being elected
10. to have lost

11. being told

12. to be loved........needed

13. not having written/not writing

14.having met/ meeting
15.5 : USING GERUNDS OR PASSIVE INFINITIVES FOLLOWING NEED
_ Need can be followed by the active of passive to – infinitive to express active or passive meanings, respectively:
Eg: My job requires me to handle many letters from abroad.
_ But active gerunds after these verbs express passive meanings:
Eg:
Your hair needs cutting (It should be cut)
These photos require careful handling (They should be handled carefully)
_ Usually an infinitive followes need. In certain circumstances, a gerunds may follow need. In this case, the gerund carries a passive meaning. Usually the situations involve fixing or improving something. For instance,
Eg:
I need to borrow some money.
The house needs painting.
The house needs to be painted.

Exercise 10:


2. to be changed/ changing

3. to be cleaned/ cleaning to clean

4. to be ironed/ ironing

5. to be repaired/ repairing
15.6: USING A POSSESSIVE TO MODIFY A GERUND


_ In formal English, a possessive adjective is uesd to modify a gerund
Eg: Mr.Lee complained about our coming to class late.

_ In informal English, the object form of a pronoun is frequently used.
Eg: Mr.Lee complained about us coming to class late.

_ In very formal English, a possesive noun is uesd to modify a gerund.
Eg: Mr.Lee complained about Mary’s coming to class late.

_ The possessive form is often not used in informal English
Eg: Mr.Lee complained about Mary coming to class late.
Exercise 13:
1. to be aksed

2. drinking

3. washing

4. to relax

5. to answer

6. telling

7. beating

8. not being/ not having been




9. to be awarded

10. to accept
15.7: USING VERBS OF PERCEPTION

_ Certain verbs of perception are followed by either the simple form(the infinitive form without to) or the ing form (the present participle) of a verb.
Eg: I saw my friend run/running down the street.
I heard the rain fall/falling on the roof.
_ Sometimes there is a clear difference between using the simple form or the ing form. The use of the ing form gives the idea that an activity is already in progress when it is perceived (The saying/giving was in progress when I first heard/saw)
Eg: I saw Mr Read giving something to the boss.
I heard Mr Read saying something to the boss.
_ There is often little difference in meaning between the two forms but the ing form usually stresses an action in progress. The use of the ing form gives the idea that an activity is already in progress when it is perceived.
_ Verbs of perception followed by the simple form or the – ing form

See watch observe listen smell
Notice look at hear feel
Exercise 15: PART II


2. slam
3. snoring
4. playing
5. call
6. walking
7. calling
8. play
9. singing...........laughing
10.land
11.burning
12. touch
15.8: USING THE SIMPLE FORM AFTER LET AND HELP


15.9: USING CAUSATIVE VERBS: MAKE, HAVE, GET
_ Make, have, get can be used to express the idea that “X” cause “Y” to do something. When they are used as causative verbs, their meaning are similar but not identical.

_ Forms:
X makes Y do sth. ( simple form )
Eg: I made my brother carry my book.

X has Y do sth. ( simple form )
Eg: I had my brother carry my book.

X gets Y to do sth. ( infinitive )
Eg: I got my brother to carry my book.
*** MAKE:
_ Make is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive.
_ Make gives the idea that “X” forces/ requires “Y” to do something.
Make + O + verb.
Eg: Mrs.Lee made her son clean his room. ( her son had no choice)

_Note: When using the verbs force and require, we must use to + verb.
Eg: The school requires the students to wear uniforms.
“Require” often implies that there is a rule.
*** HAVE:
_ Have is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive.
_ Have gives the idea that “X” request “Y” to do something.
HAVE + PERSON + VERB (base form)
HAVE + THING + PAST PARTICIPLE OF VERB
Eg: I had the plumber repair the leak.
I had my house painted.
*** GET:

_ Get is followed by an infinitive.
_ Get gives the idea that “X” persuades/convinces/encourages “Y” to do something.
GET + PERSON + TO + VERB
Eg: The student got the teacher to dismiss class early.
***** Note:
_ The past participle is used after have and get to give a passive meaning. In this case, these is usually little or no difference in meaning between have and get.
Eg: I had/got my watch repaired.
Exercise 18:

3. write
4. wash
5. to clean
6. cashed
7. to go


Exercise 19:

2. go to bed when they don’t want to.
3. bring us a wine list.
4. changed
5. write on the chalkboard.
6. (to) move into a new
Exercise 23:

1. being allowed
2. Observing......climbing/climb.......realize (that)
3. being surprised......planning
4. to have performed
5. to be identified
6. to pick
7. having met/ meeting.........to be introduced
8. to have been considered/ to be considered
9. to sleep........thinking
10. to force....to use...to feel....share
GAME
Add appropriate forms of these verbs to the sentences
Feel delight fix clean leave
Finish plan go do break
I was …………………. to hear good news about your scholarship.
I don’t like the idea of ………………………. alone.
The cleaners want to have …………………….their work in this room before they leave.
I was anxious about …………
The car needed……………after the accident.
His attempt at ………………the record failed.
It’s essential ………………… ahead in my kind of job.
They have a machine ……………carpets.
She helps me ………………………my homework.
He makes me ………………………annoyed.
Answer key
Delighted
Going
Finished
Leaving
….
Breaking
To plan
To clean
….
….
Thanks for listening
 
Gửi ý kiến