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NC BOOK 3 U4

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Nguồn:
Người gửi: Nguyễn Văn Hiền
Ngày gửi: 20h:52' 22-07-2015
Dung lượng: 3.0 MB
Số lượt tải: 17
Số lượt thích: 0 người
1
UNIT 4
2
Task I
Look at the timeline and listen to the audio. Number the four inventions in the order in which they are described (1-4).
GETTING READY
1
2
4
3
3
Task II
Listen again. Fill in the details of the four inventions. Choose the inventors’ names from the box.
GETTING READY
Percy Spencer Dr. John Pemberton George de Mestral
Spencer Silver Frank Epperson Alexander Fleming
Dr. John Pemberton
Spencer Silver
The doctor was trying to create a tonic for patients suffering from headaches. He changed his recipe many times to find the right combination.
Originally used as medicine, it was quickly adopted as a beverage.
The chemist invented a new glue that was both strong enough to adhere paper to a surface and weak enough that the paper could be easily removed.
It is the glue that is found on the back of Post-it Notes today.
4
Task II
Listen again. Fill in the details of the four inventions. Choose the inventors’ names from the box.
GETTING READY
Percy Spencer Dr. John Pemberton George de Mestral
Spencer Silver Frank Epperson Alexander Fleming
While in a lab, Percy Spencer noticed that his candy bar had melted. He realized that energy waves from a device were causing food to heat up.
As a child, Frank Epperson left a drink on his porch, and during the night, it froze. Later, he utilized his mistake to develop frozen treats.
The microwave oven is now used as a way to warm food.
Popsicles are a popular summertime refreshment.
Percy Spencer
Frank Epperson
5
GETTING READY
6
GETTING READY
7
VOCABULARY DRILL
A. Listen Up
Look at the following chindōgu inventions. Fill in the blanks with words from the audio.
The Lipstick Stencil
Dog Wigs
The Baby Mop
useless
patented
prototype
feasible
creativity
utility
8
VOCABULARY DRILL
9
VOCABULARY DRILL
B. Word Focus: Synonyms for Create
Can you determine the usage of the words in orange? Choose the appropriate word for each sentence.
1. In the 1820s, Louis Braille originated / produced a method that enabled blind people to read by using their sense of touch.
2. Toyota devises / manufactures the highest volume of vehicles of any automaker in the world.
3. The Chinese originally developed / formulated fireworks for celebrations and to ward off evil spirits. Later, they were adapted for military use.
4. Secretary Bette Graham manufactured / invented the first type of correction fluid that could be used to cover up typing mistakes.
Fast Facts About Inventions:
10
VOCABULARY DRILL
C. Speak Out Loud
Rank the inventions below from 1–10 (most important to least important). Discuss the reasoning behind your rankings with the suggested vocabulary.
11
CONVERSATION CORNER
12
CONVERSATION CORNER—REVIEW
A. Word Groups
Circle the choice that has a different meaning from the word or phrase in bold.
1. out of order a. faulty b. broken c. operational d. out of commission
2. annoyance a. irritation b. distress c. enjoyment d. frustration
3. trigger a. cause b. provoke c. spur d. prevent
4. backbreaking a. effortless b. demanding c. tiring d. exhausting
5. ingenious a. creative b. awkward c. inventive d. innovative
13
CONVERSATION CORNER—REVIEW
B. Understand from the Context
Match the sentences.
a
c
d
b
f
e
14
CONVERSATION CORNER—REVIEW
C. Multiple Choice
Circle the answers.
1. What exaggeration does Bradley make?
a. Taking the stairs might result in a heart attack.
b. He has difficulty breathing because he ran up four flights of stairs.
c. Nagging is an effective way to get help from someone.
d. Intensive labor tired out the king’s servants.
15
CONVERSATION CORNER—REVIEW
C. Multiple Choice
Circle the answers.
2. What is Courtney’s opinion about laziness?
a. Lazy people often exaggerate their fatigue.
b. Laziness cannot be attributed to inventions.
c. Laziness can be a motivator for inventiveness.
d. Lazy people would never walk up a flight of stairs.
16
CONVERSATION CORNER—REVIEW
C. Multiple Choice
Circle the answers.
3. What is TRUE about the first passenger elevator?
a. Otis’s sons constructed it according to their father’s plans.
b. The elevator didn’t rely on laborers for its operation.
c. Modern elevators adopted its brake system design.
d. The device was invented for one particular person.
17
CONVERSATION CORNER—REVIEW
C. Multiple Choice
Circle the answers.
4. Why does Bradley want to become an elevator engineer?
a. He would be able to secure a high income in that profession.
b. He would be assured of always having an elevator to ride.
c. He may win the contest held by Otis Elevator Company.
d. He would like to copy the Otis business model.
18
1. Whenever my daughter doesn’t get her way, she starts kicking and screaming.
 →_______________________________________________________________
2. Most bloggers exaggerate what they write about.
 →_______________________________________________________________
3. You should stop dwelling on your breakup so much.
 →_______________________________________________________________
Rewrite the parts in bold using the expressions. Do not repeat any of
your answer choices.
EXPRESSION PLAZA
A. Overreacting
Whenever my daughter doesn’t get her way, she acts like a drama queen.
Most bloggers blow things out of proportion.
You should stop making too much of your breakup.
19
1. My faulty alarm clock __________________ because it always beeps at the wrong time.
2. This stain spray __________________! Not only is it difficult to apply, but it also doesn’t work well.
3. Todd __________________ his battered old car, so he decided to purchase a brand-new one.
EXPRESSION PLAZA
B. Talking About Annoyances
Fill in the appropriate expressions.
is getting on my nerves
is such an annoyance
was fed up with
20
With a classmate, practice talking about the situations below using the expressions above.
EXPRESSION PLAZA
C. Describing Financial Success
1. Someone marries into money or inherits a family fortune.
2. Someone patents an invention that becomes a top seller.
3. Someone wins a million dollars in a lottery.
4. Someone founds a very successful company.
Example:
A: Kimberly Conrad struck it rich when she married Playboy executive Hugh Hefner.
B: No kidding! Mr. Hefner has made a fortune in the magazine business, so she’ll never have to work again.
21
EXPRESSION PRACTICE
A. Fill Out the Public Statement
Fill in the blanks with words or expressions from the audio.
To My Dear Fans,
I would like to thank those who have supported me despite the 1. ___________
made by my ex-wife. Unfortunately, the media has 2. ___________ the incident
completely ________________. I never 3. ___________ Mary Reeses, physically or 4. ___________, during our marriage. I believe she’s going through a tough time,
which has caused her to 5. ________________ regarding this matter. I truly hope
that she’ll get professional help and stop acting like 6. ________________. The
tabloids have 7. ________________ of what happened. In the future, they should
get their facts straight before disrupting the lives of others.
Sincerely,
Joey Doe
accusations
blown
abused
verbally
go overboard
a drama queen
made too much
out of proportion
22
EXPRESSION PRACTICE
23
EXPRESSION PRACTICE
B. Guess Who
Match the speaker with the appropriate statement.
• I’m growing tired of how unreliable my car is.
• Train delays really irritate me, especially when I’m already late.
• I can’t tolerate leaving early to arrive somewhere promptly because I don’t have an automobile.
• The primary disadvantage of driving is getting stuck in traffic.
• I get annoyed by drivers who constantly honk their horns.
• In my opinion, public transportation has too many drawbacks.
• Not having a place to sit on a crammed bus makes me feel uncomfortable.
24
EXPRESSION PRACTICE
25
EXPRESSION PRACTICE
C. Complete the Report
Summarize the financial status of each client based on the audio. Use the hints provided.
The client’s bakery made a killing last year, but sales are starting to decline, as customers have been cutting down their expenditures on non-essential things.
The client owns a company that manufactures scientific instruments. He struck it rich with his invention of an impressive laboratory microscope a few years earlier. His booming business is raking in the dough.
The client seems indifferent towards investing his savings. He hit pay dirt with the sale of his business a while back, but now he is insistent that he likes just being an auto mechanic.
CLIENT PROFILES
26
EXPRESSION PRACTICE
27
GRAMMAR CHECKPOINT
Past Perfect
We can use the past perfect tense to tell a story or to explain how something occurred in sequence. The past perfect is often used with the simple past.
A. Usage
28
GRAMMAR CHECKPOINT
Past Perfect
We can use the past perfect tense to tell a story or to explain how something occurred in sequence. The past perfect is often used with the simple past.
B. Simple Past vs. Past Perfect
29
GRAMMAR CHECKPOINT
Past Perfect
We can use the past perfect tense to tell a story or to explain how something occurred in sequence. The past perfect is often used with the simple past.
Signal words such as after, when, and before can be used with both simple past and past perfect tenses depending on what is being emphasized in the context.
Examples:
• Timmy had studied Chinese before he visited Taiwan.
(emphasizes Timmy’s previous study of Chinese)
• Edmund asked for a second helping of rice before he had finished his first bowl.
(emphasizes the fact that Edmund hadn’t eaten all his rice)
Usage Note
30
1. By the time we ___________ (get) to the meeting, we ___________ (already settle) our differences.
2. Anne was suffering from fatigue because she ___________ (work) too much overtime.
3. The police ___________ (launch) an investigation on the incident before the national TV ___________ (report) the news.
4. After Mom ___________ (eat) the seafood dish, she ___________ (break) out in a terrible rash.
5. His passport ___________ (expire) on March 31, so he ___________ (not board) the airplane.
6. In yesterday’s announcement, the restaurant owner ___________ (assert) that they ___________ (improve) their hygiene standards.
GRAMMAR WORKOUT
A. Complete the Sentences
Fill in the correct tenses of the verbs. Some blanks may have more than one possible answer.
had already settled
had worked /
worked
had launched /
launched
had eaten / ate
had expired
got
broke
couldn’t board
asserted
had improved
reported
31
1. I had asked Nancy to write up an estimate of the building costs, ______
2. Bill said he hadn’t passed by the wharf ______
3. Although Sheila had immediately offered to compensate him for the damage, ______
4. When they said they owned a cottage, ______
5. Eunice wasn’t able to breathe a sigh of relief ______
6. Alice had just purchased the house ______
a. until the doctor informed her that her surgery had been successful.
b. I had no idea they were talking about this impressive mansion!
the first time he visited San Francisco.

d. but she didn’t get the information to me before the meeting.
when a hurricane destroyed her roof.

Kent didn’t accept until months later.
GRAMMAR WORKOUT
B. Match
Match the sentence parts.
d
c
f
b
a
e
32
The Wampanoag Indians lived in Massachusetts for thousands of years when the Pilgrims had landed at Plymouth Rock. Conditions in the New World were demanding, and within a year, the newcomers lose 46 people. Luckily, the Wampanoag have noticed their troubles and introduced suitable crops to them. In the autumn of 1621, the Pilgrims having their first decent harvest. Until this time, they never known prosperity, and they are now hopeful about the future. To celebrate, they decide to have a party and invite the Wampanoag. Each year, another celebration was held on the anniversary of that feast. By the 1860s, Thanksgiving has become an official national holiday. Historians are uncertain about whether or not America’s ancestors had been having turkey at the first Thanksgiving. Today, it’s impossible to have a Thanksgiving meal without including this symbolic dish.
GRAMMAR WORKOUT
C. Correct the Mistakes
Fix the ten errors in the passage. There may be more than one possible answer.
had lived
landed
had lost / lost
had noticed / noticed
had
decided
had become
had had / had
had never known
were
33
Scan the article below. Write the paragraph number (1-4) next to the matching main
idea. There are two extra choices.











READING─PRE-READING TASK
Numerous devices are invented in Japan every year.
Germans have an excellent education system, especially when it comes to science.
Most countries work hard to be considered inventive.
1
Israel is striving to prove that it can innovate as well as larger countries.
The Japanese are most concerned about the future of robots.
Throughout history, Germans have been responsible for the invention of many useful things.
4
3
2
34
It’s hard to imagine that televisions had been unavailable to the public until 100 years ago, but now we can carry portable phones in our pockets. Inventions will continue to change the world, and countries will pull out all the stops to be the most innovative.

Where the Inventors Come From
READING
p.40
Paragraph 1
35
GERMANY
Germany had proved its inventiveness long before the modern era. Many inventions that are used every day, including the printing press and the gas-powered engine, can be attributed to German inventors. Also notable are their breakthroughs in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Have a headache? Aspirin, one of the most commonly used medicines in the world, was created in this northern European nation. Break a bone? It’s because of German ingenuity that we have X-rays. Unsurprisingly, when education systems are ranked, Germany’s science programs are frequently placed in the top ten.
READING
Where the Inventors Come From
p.40
Paragraph 2
36
READING
JAPAN
For years, Japan has been second only to the US in the number of patents filed. Hundreds of thousands of patent applications, from the bizarre to the practical, are submitted each year in this Asian country. Japanese inventors show a talent for the imaginative, but they are perhaps most well-known for their obsession with robots. The robot teacher Saya was an immediate worldwide sensation when “she” was launched. Saya can fluently speak multiple languages and is able to recognize if students make mistakes. One Japanese inventor has even devised a robot with 24 “fingers” that can shampoo, condition, and blow-dry a person’s hair.

Where the Inventors Come From
p.40
Paragraph 3
37
READING
ISRAEL
Despite being one of the smallest countries on the planet, Israel is working earnestly to prove that it can be a center for innovation, especially in the technology sector. Israel is already the birthplace of the USB flash drive, a device that has become synonymous with convenient digital storage. Furthermore, network security companies in Israel have gained the reputation of being the best in the industry. In order to spur more development, the Israeli government invests a large percentage of the nation’s GDP* in research. Thanks to these funds, Israel boasts one start-up* company for every 1,800 people. With all of these independent businesses, this Middle Eastern country is sure to be at the forefront of future technological advancements.
Where the Inventors Come From
For Your Reference
* GDP: gross domestic product;
the total value of the goods and services produced by a country
For Your Reference
* start-up: a new small business
p.40
Paragraph 4
38
READING
Without these countries, we wouldn’t have access to many of the conveniences and luxuries that we enjoy today!
p.40
Where the Inventors Come From
Paragraph 5
39
READING
Patent systems have been in use in various countries for hundreds of years. The first patents only granted an inventor exclusivity of rights for a few years, but modern ones can last for decades. Do today’s patents give too few or too many rights to their owners? Are there some things that shouldn’t be allowed to be patented?
Discussion
40
READING ─AFTER YOU READ
A. Complete the Sentences
Fill in the blanks with words or expressions from the article. Use the hints to help you.
1. There have been many ___________ in cancer research during the past decade; however, the medical community is still far from finding a cure. (important new discovery)
2. Because the number of elderly people is increasing, the ___________ industry is creating drugs that tackle their health ailments. (relating to the production of medicine)
3. The current fad of 3D movies can ___________ the release of the film Avatar. (be credited to)
4. Applications won’t be accepted if they’re not ___________ by the deadline. (send for consideration)
5. Japanese automobile companies are ___________ the electric car market. Other nations are behind them in terms of development. (in a leading position)
breakthroughs
pharmaceutical
be attributed to
submitted
at the forefront of
p.34
p.35
p.36
p.37
p.38
41
innovate note ingenuity obsession medicine
digit synonym sensation technology
READING ─AFTER YOU READ
B. Use the Adjectives
Change the words below into adjectives by using the suffixes provided.
notable
innovative
obsessive
ingenious
synonymous
medical
digital
sensational
technological
42
READING ─AFTER YOU READ
B. Use the Adjectives
Finish the passage using the adjectives you created. There may be more than one possible answer.
It would be hard to find someone who doesn’t own an MP3 player. Many believe it is the most 1. ___________ music-related product ever created. What’s most
2. ___________ about the first MP3 player, which was produced in 1998, is that it could store just six songs! Over the years, companies have become more
3. ___________ with their devices. However, it is the iPod that is 4. ___________ with the term “MP3 player” today. Sales of the first generation iPods were
5. ___________, and the new versions are still the dominant MP3 players on the market. In fact, many Apple fans are 6. ___________ about upgrading whenever the latest model is released. Certainly, the 7. ___________ advances Apple makes in the world of MP3 players will help the company continue to lead the industry.
ingenious
notable
innovative
synonymous
sensational
obsessive
technological
43
READING ─AFTER YOU READ
C. Classification
Write G for Germany, J for Japan, or I for Israel next to the matching description.
_____ 1. The country is responsible for the invention of what is usually used to treat headaches.
_____ 2. The government invests a large amount of money in small enterprises to boost the economy.
_____ 3. Scientific achievements are associated with the quality of the education system here.
_____ 4. Computer system innovations are some of this country’s most notable contributions.
_____ 5. The bulk of this nation’s inventions take care of tasks that humans would normally complete.
G
I
G
J
J
44
WRITING SKILLS
Unity and Coherence
In a unified paragraph, every sentence should be related to the topic.
45
WRITING SKILLS
Unity and Coherence
In a coherent paragraph, sentences should logically flow from one idea to the next.
46
WRITING SKILLS
Task
Write the letter of the sentence next to the main idea it develops.
c, f
a, e
b, d
47
WRITING SKILLS─BEFORE YOU WRITE
Visit the site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velcro to research the topics below. Write four related sentences about each topic.
George de Mestral, a Swiss electrical engineer, was inspired to invent Velcro in 1948 after picking off seeds that were hooked into his pants.
De Mestral had noticed that the seeds were strongly attached to the loops of the fabric.
At first, he copied this design idea using cotton, but it weakened quickly, so he began using synthetic fibers instead.
Because of this and other delays, it took ten years to create a process that worked. He received a patent for his invention in 1955.
48
WRITING SKILLS─BEFORE YOU WRITE
Visit the site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velcro to research the topics below. Write four related sentences about each topic.
Amazingly, a two-inch-square piece of Velcro is strong enough to support a 175-pound person.
Because of this strength, Velcro was used to hold together a human heart during the first artificial heart surgery.
As Velcro is both durable and easy to use, it is often used as a replacement for buttons or zippers.
It is especially popular to apply to clothing designed for those who do not have the skills to use more complicated fasteners, such as children or the elderly.
49
George de Mestral, a Swiss electrical engineer, invented Velcro in 1948. He was inspired after ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
He realized this idea could be an effective method of fastening clothes. At first, he copied the design using cotton, _________________________________________
_____________________________________________. Then he had to create a special loom to weave the Velcro. _______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Now, people all over the world use Velcro!
WRITING SKILLS─WRITE IT UP
Complete the passage. Then write another 120-word essay about the uses of Velcro. Make sure the flow of your piece is coherent.
Taking a Cue from Mother Nature
returning from a hunting trip and finding seeds hooked into his pants. He had noticed that the seeds were strongly attached to the loops of the fabric
but it weakened quickly, so he began using synthetic fibers instead
Because of this and other delays, it took ten years to come up with a process that worked. He received a patent for his invention in 1955
50
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
As Velcro is sturdy and simple, it has many practical uses. Amazingly, a two-inch-square piece of Velcro is strong enough to support a 175-pound person. Because of this strength, Velcro was used to hold together a human heart during the first artificial heart surgery. In addition, it’s easy to use, so it often replaces buttons or zippers. It is especially popular to apply to clothing designed for those who do not have the skills to use more complicated fasteners, such as children or the elderly. Look to see which items you own that are attached with Velcro—you might be surprised at how many you find!
WRITING SKILLS─WRITE IT UP
Complete the passage. Then write another 120-word essay about the uses of Velcro. Make sure the flow of your piece is coherent.
Velcro Is Amazing!
51
The End
 
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