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Unit 9. Undersea world

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Tham khảo cùng nội dung: Bài giảng, Giáo án, E-learning, Bài mẫu, Sách giáo khoa, ...
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Nguồn: khánh ngọc
Người gửi: Hoàng Như Ý
Ngày gửi: 23h:46' 31-03-2015
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UNIT 9 PRESRERVING THE ENVIRONMENT
LANGUAGE
VOCABULARY
- depletion /dɪ`pliːʃn/ (n): sự làm suy yếu (v) to deplete /dɪˈpliːt/
- to contaminate /kənˈtæmɪneɪt/ (v): làm bẩn (n) contamination /kəntæmɪˈneɪʃən/
- consumption /kən`sʌmpʃn/ (n): sự tiêu dùng (v) to consume /kənˈsjuːm/ (n) consumer /kənˈsjuː.məʳ/
- disposal /dɪ`spəʊzl/ (n): sự vứt bỏ đi,

VOCABULARY
- chemical spray /`kemɪkl spreɪ/ (n.p): bình phun hóa học
- fertilizer /`fɜrtlaɪzə(r)/ (n): phân bón (a) fertile /ˈfɜː.taɪl/
- arid /`ærɪd/ (a): khô cằn (đất)
- confusion /kən`fju:ʤn/ (n): sự lộn xôn, sự hỗn độn (v) to confuse /kənˈfjuːz/
- vegetation /vedʒɪ`teɪʃn/ (n): cây cối, cây cỏ, thực vật
- vapor /ˈveɪ.pəʳ/ (n): hơi nước (v) to vaporize /ˈveɪ.pər.aɪz/

Reported speech
REPORTED SPEECH:
If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech.
REPORTED SPEECH:
When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
 pronouns
 present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
 place and time expressions
 tenses (backshift)
REPORTED SPEECH:
When do we use backshift?

We use backshift when it is logical to use backshift. So, for example, if two minutes ago John said "I am hungry" and I am now telling his sister, I might NOT use backshift (because John is still hungry):

John just said that he is hungry.
But if yesterday John said "I am hungry" and I am now telling his sister, I would likely use backshift:
Yesterday, John said that he was hungry.

[We hope that John has eaten since yesterday ]
REPORTED SPEECH:
So we use backshift SOMETIMES but not always. And WHEN we use backshift, here`s how it works with these common tenses and modals:
REPORTED SPEECH:
We NEVER use backshift when the original words are:

past perfect
could
might
would
should
Remember:

If a situation is still true, backshift is optional.
For a general truth there is no need for backshift.
REPORTED SPEECH:
The most common reporting verbs are say and tell. However, there are a number of other reporting verbs that can be used instead of say or tell to make more efficient (i.e. shorter) statements and questions.

Ex
`I`m sure that everything will be alright`

If we reported the statement with say, we would get :

 He said that he was sure that everything would be alright

This is an acceptable statement in English, if rather long. However, the words I`m sure that... in this sentence can have the function of assuring someone. Therefore, we can use the reporting verb assure

He assured me that everything would be alright

This is a) shorter, and b) makes the function of the sentence absolutely clear.
Use of reporting verbs
The following common reporting verbs follow the same pattern as say
i.e. verb + (that) + clause :

admit
advise*
agree
announce
claim
complain
confirm
declare
explain
insist
mention
promise*
propose
say
suggest
warn*
Common reporting verbs - say pattern
The following common verbs follow the same pattern as tell
i.e. verb + direct object + (that) + clause :

advise
assure
convince
inform
notify
persuade
promise
reassure
remind
tell
warn
Common reporting verbs – Tell pattern
These are usually reported using an infinitive structure :

reporting verb + infinitive with to

Examples:
They agreed to pay the legal costs.
He promised to come as soon as possible.

Common reporting verbs that follow this pattern are :

agree
ask
claim
demand
offer
promise
propose
refuse
threaten
Reporting actions : requests, promises etc
Some verbs can be followed by an object and infinitive :
reporting verb + direct object + infinitive with to
Examples:
He reminded me to call Kath.

Common reporting verbs that follow this pattern are :
advise
ask
beg
convince
encourage
forbid
instruct
invite
order
persuade
remind
tell
urge
warn (not to)
Reporting actions : requests, promises etc
Some reporting verbs are followed by a gerund, not an infinitive :

Direct speech : `Why don`t we have the party at Peter`s place?`
Reported speech : She suggested having the party at Peter`s place.

Common reporting verbs that can be followed by a gerund are :

admit
deny
mention
proposed
report
suggest
Reporting verbs followed by a gerund
Reported speech game
Reported speech game
state admit acknowledge point out explain
Concede confess declare suggest accuse
apologize ask claim congratulate
Deny insist maintain promise tell advise demand forbid
predict propose recommend refuse request warn reply
thank invite introduce someone agree suggest complain compliment ask for
Use the verbs above to tell an imaginary story about you and your friends
 
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