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12099162 Kính chào các thầy, cô. Khi cài đặt phần mềm , trên PowerPoint và Word sẽ mặc định xuất hiện menu Bộ công cụ Violet để thầy, cô có thể sử dụng các tính năng đặc biệt của phần mềm ngay trên PowerPoint và Word. Tuy nhiên sau khi cài đặt phần mềm , với nhiều máy tính sẽ...
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Unit 1. The generation gap. Lesson 1. Getting started

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Tham khảo cùng nội dung: Bài giảng, Giáo án, E-learning, Bài mẫu, Sách giáo khoa, ...
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Người gửi: Đỗ Văn Bình (trang riêng)
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ĐỖ VĂN BÌNH
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REDUCED CLAUSES: MỆNH ĐỀ RÚT GỌN
I. Relative Reduced Clauses: Mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn
1. Using Present Participle Phrases: (V-ING phrases replace relative clauses) Có thể dùng một ngữ danh động từ V-ING để thay thế cho mệnh đề quan hệ nếu động từ chính của mệnh đề đó ở thể chủ động.
Eg. 1. The man who is sitting next to you is Mr. Mike.
→ The man sitting next to you is Mr. Pike.
2. Do you know the boy who broke the window yesterday?
→ Do you know the boy breaking the window yesterday?
Vì các mục đích nói khác nhau mà các mệnh đề quan hệ có thể được rút gọn theo những cách dưới đây (3 cách đầu là phổ biến và quan trọng nhất).
2. Using Past Participle Phrases: (V-ED phrases replace relative clauses) Có thể dùng một ngữ tính từ V-ED để thay thế cho mệnh đề quan hệ nếu động từ chính của mệnh đề đó ở thể bị động.
3. Using Infinitive Phrases: (to V phrases replace relative clauses) Có thể dùng một ngữ động từ to infinitives để thay thế cho mệnh đề quan hệ trong trường hợp mệnh đề có chứa các từ FIRST, SECOND, THIRD, LAST, ONLY... có thể dùng với cấu trúc “for O + to V”, hoặc một số mệnh đề mang tính ràng buộc nhiệm vụ…
Eg. 1. English is an important language which we have to master.
→ English is an important language to master/ for us to master.
2. He is the only one who knows the answer.
→ He is the only one to know the answer.
E.g. 1. The man who was arrested by the police is Mr. Mike.
→ The man arrested by the police is Mr. Pike.
2. Do you know the boy who was punished by Mr. An?
→ Do you know the boy punished by Mr. An?
4. Using Noun Phrases: (Noun phrases replace relative clauses) Có thể dùng một hoặc một cụm danh từ để thay thế cho mệnh đề quan hệ nếu mệnh đề đó là ngữ danh từ (thường chỉ nghề nghiệp).
5. Using Adjectival Phrases: (Adjectival phrases replace relative clauses) Có thể dùng một hoặc một cụm tính từ để thay thế cho mệnh đề quan hệ.
Eg. 1. Hanoi, which is crowded with people, doesn’t interest me.
→ Hanoi, crowded with people, doesn’t interest me.
2. The jobs which are easy to get are not always well-paid.
→ The jobs easy to get are not always well-paid.
Eg. 1. Mr. Ba, who is our new form teacher, is a good teacher.
→ Mr. Ba, our new form teacher, is a good teacher.
2. The man who is the new manager of the office is still young.
→ The man - the new manager of the office - is still very young.
Chú ý: Ngoài lược các mệnh đề quan hệ thì các câu phức cũng được lược theo nguyên tắc lược thể hiện dưới đây (Với điều kiện là các chủ ngữ của câu lược phải đồng nhất)
II. Other Reduced Clauses: Mệnh đề rút gọn khác
1. Using V-ing form for first clause: Lược mệnh đề trước bằng cụm V-ing.
1.1. S - V1, S - V2  V1- ing, S - V2
Eg. Linda opened the letter and she burst into tears.
 Opening the letter, Linda burst into tears.
1.2. S - V1, S - V2  On V1- ing, S - V2
Eg. She opened the door. She shouted out in panic.
 On opening the door, she shouted out in panic.
1.3. When S - V1, S - V2  When V1- ing, S - V2
Eg. When he opened the door. He saw someone lying on the floor.
 When opening the door, he saw someone lying on the floor.
1.4. While S - V1, S - V2  While V1- ing, S - V2
Eg. While he was walking home. He saw an accident.
 While walking home, he saw an accident.
2. Using V-ing form for second clause: Lược mệnh đề sau bằng cụm V-ing.
S - V1, S - V2  S - V1, V2 - ing
Eg. Linda went out of the room. She sang as she walked out.
 Linda went out of the room, singing (as she walked out).
GHI CHÚ: 1. S - V1, S - V2  V1- ing, S - V2
2. S - V1, S - V2  On V1- ing, S - V2
3. S - V1, S - V2  When V1- ing, S - V2
4. S - V1, S - V2  While V1- ing, S - V2
5. S - V1, S - V2  S – V1, V2- ing
PRACTICE EXERCISES: BÀI TẬP THỰC HÀNH
01. The palace______ many centuries ago remains practically intact.
A. building B. to build C. built D. people built
02. The young man_________ after the court was found innocent of all the charges against him.
A. released B. to be released C. releasing D. to release
03. Drastic measures should be taken to tackle the problems ________ child abuse.
A. are involving B. to involve C. involving D. involved
PRACTICE EXERCISES: BÀI TẬP THỰC HÀNH
04. Once_________ off by the teacher, the class filed out of the room in silence.
A. being told B. have been told C. told D. having told
05. The archaeological excavation_________ to the discovery of the ancient city lasted several years.
A. led B. leading C. to lead D. being led
06. Florida, ______ the Sunshine state, attracts many tourists every year.
A. is known as B. that is known as C. which known as D. known as
07. ________ high school, Nam attended a university in the city centre.
A. Having finished B. To have finished
C. Having been finished D. To finish
08. Applications_________ in after 30 April will not be considered.
A. send B. that is sent C. sent D. which sent
09. The man_________ his car outside hasn’t come back for it yet.
A. whom leaving B. leaving C. left D. to leave
10. Although________ about the dangers of nCoV, many people continue travelling to Korea.
A. warned B. warning C. to be warned D. being warned
11. The scientists_________ on this project try to find the solutions to air pollution.
A. working B. worked C. are working D. who working
12. I really like the song Diem Xua just_________ by Hong Nhung.
A. having performed B. performed
C. performing D. has been perform
13. The bank has more than 100 branches_____ in a major urban area.
A. are located B. locating C. located D. having located
14. The building_________ to withstand earthquakes collapsed yesterday in an earthquake. How ironic!
A. was designed B. had been designed C. designed D. to be designed
15. We should participate in the movements_________ to conserve the natural environment.
A. organizing B. organized C. to organize D. which organize
16. My favourite hobby is watching the work__________ by Shakespeare in the 20 century.
A. written B. is writing C. writes D. is written
17. My grandmother__________ her whole life to looking after her children passed away.
A. paying B. using C. spending D. devoting
18. I have a message for people__________ by the traffic chaos.
A. to delay B. who delay C. delayed D. who delaying
19. We stood on the bridge_________ the two halves of the building.
A. connecting B. was connecting C. connected D. was connected
20. The man_________ to the party has not yet come.
A. invited B. to invite C. inviting D. to inviting
21. The woman _______ next door is a famous singer.
A. lives B. who live C. living D. that living
22. The house _______ in the storm has now been rebuilt.
A. destroyed B. destroying C. which destroyed D. that is destroyed
23. The man _______ at the blackboard is our teacher.
A. stood B. stands C. standing D. to stand
24. Tom was the last _______ the classroom yesterday.
A. to leave B. leaving C. left D. leaves
25. Linda was the last student _______ at the oral exam.
A. to be asked B. asking C. asks D. to ask
26. The bridge _______ by French architects is very nice.
A. was designed B. designing C. to design D. designed
27. The problems _______ they are discussing at the meeting are very important.
A. who B. which C. 0 D. both B and C
28. Michael told me about students _______ have just got the scholarship.
A. which B. 0 C. who D. whose
29. The ring _______ is made of gold and diamond.
A. she is wearing it B. he gave it to her C. Linda like D. she is wearing
30. The house _______ is situated in the city centre.
A. which B. we have just bought C. in where we live D. which we live
31. This is Mary, ________ is taking over my job when I leave.
A. that B. which C. who D. whom
32. An architect is someone ________ designs buildings.
A. who B. that C. which D. it
33. I apologized to the boy ________ book I borrowed.
A. which B. who C. whom D. whose
34. We’d like to buy the house ________ overlooks West Lake.
A. who B. whose C. where D. which
35. The books ________ written by Jack London is very interesting.
A. which were B. were C. whose D. which
36. I am going to visit the town ________ I was born and grew up.
A. where B. which C. when D. who
37. I’ll never forget the place ________ I first met you.
A. at where B. where C. at which D. on which
38. They asked me a lot of questions, ________ I couldn’t answer.
A. most of which B. of which most C. most of that D. of that most
39. That is the house in ________ I used to live.
A. that B. which C. where D. there
40. Sunday is the day ________ which we usually go fishing.
A. during B. at C. in D. on
 
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