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Translation Theory 6

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Báo tài liệu có sai sót
Nhắn tin cho tác giả
(Tài liệu chưa được thẩm định)
Nguồn: Trương Văn Ánh - Trường Đại học Sài Gòn
Người gửi: Trương Văn Ánh
Ngày gửi: 22h:42' 31-05-2020
Dung lượng: 226.0 KB
Số lượt tải: 19
Số lượt thích: 0 người
1
INTRODUCTION TO TRANSLATION

Truong Van Anh
Sai Gon University, HCMC
E-mail: truongvananh@cvseas.edu.vn
Lesson 6: Translation procedures
Translation methods relate to whole texts.
Translation procedures are used for sentences and smaller units of language.
One translation procedure is literal translation.
Other procedures depend on contexts.

A) TRANSFERENCE
It is transliteration (conversion of different alphabets)
Tang (Chinese) > Đường
ЛЕнИн (Russian) > Lê Nin
Einstein (German) > Anh xtanh
Washington (English) > Oa sinh tơn
Napoléon (French) Na pô lê ông/ Nã Phá Luân
Generally, they are proper names.
B) NATURALISATION
This procedure follows transference and adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology.
Ex: Sichuan (Chinese): Tứ Xuyên
Paris (French): Pa ri
London (English): Luân Đôn
мOСКВА (Russian): Mát xcơ va
Leipzid (German): Lai xít
C) CULTURAL EQUIVALENT:
This is an approximate translation where a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural word.
Kindergarten (German): Vườn trẻ
Metre (French): Thước
Yard (English): Thước
Carat (Greek): Ca ra
COBET (Russian): Xô viết
D)FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT
A similar procedure is used when a SL technical word has no TL equivalent.
Logic (French): Lô gíc
Tank (English): xe tăng
Chip (English): con chíp
Dollar (English): đô la (USD; USD 10 million)
Tsunami (Japanese): sóng thần
E) DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT
There are no equivalent words, so we use the names of SL and explain them to the listeners.
Boomerang (Australia): Weapon of aborigines.
Kimono (Japan): Traditional Japanese dress
Ao dai (Vietnam): Traditional Vietnamese dress
МАТрёСкА: Russian dolls (Matrioxka)
F) SYNONYMY
When there is no literal translation and no equivalent translation, we use near sense.
Here economy precedes accuracy.
It is considered a compromise. However, if it is not necessary, synonymy is a mark of poor translation.
Ex: Blonde hair: tóc vàng > tóc vàng hoe
slim: ốm > mãnh mai
G) THROUGH-TRANSLATION
It is known as loan translation. It is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organisations, components of compounds, etc.
TOEFL, IETLS, TOEIC
UNICEF, WTO, WHO, UNESCO
Coup de l’amour

H) SHIFTS OR TRANSPOSITION
It is a change in grammar from SL to TL.
(1) English plural noun, Vietnamese singular noun
Ex: The stars Look Down by A.J. Cronin is a novel about the lives of miners.
(2) English prepositions, Vietnamese verbs
She is a girl with long hair.
He is a man in black.
He is a man from Guangchou.
(3) English gerund/noun, Vietnamese verb
English Vietnamese
Events nominalization Verb
On seeing her, he stopped.
They prevent the boy from stealing a bike.
It is his suggestion that he be allowed to go home early.
(4) English pronoun, Vietnamese noun
He introduced me to John. He was a handsome boy.
English possessive adjective, Vietnamese possessive case
She took me to Mary and left me at her house.
(5) English delexical verb, Vietnamese verb (noun)
He takes care of his sick mother.
She made use of the old hat.
We make arrangement of the tables and chairs.
He gives advice to me.
He had a bath yesterday.
AND
+ He bought some pens and two books.
+ He is a doctor and a director of the hospital.
+ He eats bread and butter.
vermicelli and curry.
+ He plays table-tennis and ping-pong.
+ Tom and Jerry went to his house.
+ I have lived here for ten years, and I don’t know “Mrs. 8” pub.
+ He fell into the river and he caught a cold.
+ He finished his work, and he went home.



(6) English is an adverbial phrase, Vietnamese adverb
Wait for me in a minute.
He runs the machine in a careful way.

(7) English complex sentence, Vietnamese compound/simple sentence
He bought a house which was in Tan Binh.
Adj. cl.
- English complex sentence, Vietnamese simple sentence
He bought a house which was in Tan Binh.
Adj. cl.
(8) English simple sentence, Vietnamese complex sentence
On seeing her, he stopped.
Joining WTO, Vietnam has faced a lot of difficulties.
(9) English preposition, Vietnamese none
Ex: He is waiting for her.
- English none, Vietnamese preposition
Ex: He contacted them yesterday.
English and Vietnamese have different prepositions
Ex: He got married to her.
English and Vietnamese have the same prepositions
Ex: He talks about that fact.
(10) English at the end, Vietnamese at the beginning
Ex: “I’ve just bought a new car”, said John.
English is at the beginning, Vietnamese at the end (Adverb of place, time, etc)
Ex: At school he met her.
(11) English complex sentence, Vietnamese several simple sentences.
Ex: The car which once belonged to him when he lived in HCMC now is the property of hers.
(12) Pragmatics: Sometimes translation is not based on meaning and structure, but specific understanding in the context.
Ex: It is very windy outside and dad points at the door and says: “That’s the door”.
Then son understands and comes to close the door.
That’s the door = Hãy đóng cửa kia.

I) MODULATION:
A variation through a change of viewpoint.
The TL rejects literal translation.
(1) Generic word or phrase, specific word or phrase:
Ex: She feels ill, so she takes some medicine.
He made his ten of hearts.
He got to school by bus.
He drives some chickens into a pen.
(2) Specific word or phrase, generic word or phrase:
Ex: Our tea-break/coffee-break is at 8:30.
She got some food at the supermarket.
(3) Reversal of terms:
Ex: At the end of the game, the score was 2-1 against the homeside.
Khi trận đấu kết thúc, tỉ số là 2-1 nghiêng về đội bạn.
I don’t think you are right.
Score
0-0: nil all
0-1: nil one
1-1: one all




He was not married until he was forty.
(4) One part for another:
Ex: I have read this novel from cover to cover.
He was so poor that he had to beg from door to door.
The terns flew to the south, one after another.
- The same word/phrase in different contexts may be different:
The terns flew to the south, one after another. (lũ lượt)
The students in line come into the class, one after another. (lần lượt)
The IS oil trucks enter Turkey, one after another. (nối đuôi nhau)
- The different words/phrases in the same context may be synonyms:
I met that student. The guy looked handsome.



(5) Active to passive:
It is said that…
It was rumoured that…
It is suggested that…
The mouse was eaten by the cat.
On the contrary:
A car hit him.
A dog bit her.
J) REDUCTION AND EXPANSION:
1) Reduction:
Ex: A man who lives next door is kind.
He works as an engineer.
International English Language Testing System = IELTS
2) Expansion: Oil talks
A man in black.
A girl from Binh Dinh.
K) PARAPHRASE:
Explaining the meaning of SL in TL.
Ex: Fry : cook in a pan with oil or fat.
He was surprised at the news.
The news surprised him.
L) OTHER PROCEDURES:
1) Equivalence:
Ex: As poor as mouse in the church
2) Adaptation:
Use of recognised equivalent between two situations: Dear…; Yours ever, etc.
M) COUPLETS AND TRIPLETS:
Combining two or three procedures in translation.
Ex: Kimono (Expansion and naturalisation)
N) NOTES, ADDITIONS, GLOSSES:
Notes at bottom of the page.
Notes at the end of the chapter.
Notes or glossary at the end of the book.
Ex: He lives in Phu Loc.
* A commune/village is between Da Nang and Hue.
Translation
SL TL

Analyze
Meaning
Decode

Meaning Encode
How to translate
English-Vietnamese:
- Analyze English structure.
- Understand the meaning.
- Find the equivalent structure in Vietnamese.
- Write a complete sentence which is accepted in Vietnamese. (The sentence is natural in Vietnamese).


Vietnamese-English:
- Analyze Vietnamese structure.
- Understand the meaning.
- Find the equivalent structure in English.
- Recognize the finite verb, the main elements (S, O, C) and the phrases in English.
- Write a complete sentence which is accepted in English. (The sentence is natural in English).
Additional items
STYLES AND LINGUISTIC LEVELS IN TRANSLATION
Styles play an important role in translation and strongly affect the second language meaning. Due to the context, text-type and audience, the levels of language in translation can be different - the informal language used in informal situations ; colloquial used in spoken language; familiar language used among friends, relatives, members in a family;
formal language used in formal texts such as speeches in conference, legal documents, business letter and documents, research papers.
The examples given below clearly indicate that the same message could be expressed in different styles.( Look at 1,2 & 3; 4&5; 6&7 )
1. Drop me a line. (informal )
2. Remember to write me a letter. (neutral)
3. I look forward to your letter. (informal)
4. They can escape from family supervision. (formal)
5. Their parents can’t keep an eye on them. (colloquial)
6. They are completely armed. (formal)
7. They are armed to teeth. (colloquial)
Notes: Style error is an acute problem to the translators. There are translators who did not master the difference when using various styles such as conversational, academic, scientific, literary styles. Many translators failed when coming across the unfamiliar styles due to being unaware of degrees of formality (informal or formal style), usage of vocabulary (informal, colloquial, and formal)
These are some style errors taken out from some Vietnamese- English translations.
1. Nếu chúng tôi đặt hàng với số lượng lớn, liệu doanh nghiệp anh có bán với giá rẻ không? If we place substantial orders, can your enterprise get us with soft price?
It is impossible to use informal style in a business letter. Instead of using “soft price” , the translator should use “cheaper price”.
2. Thời tiết ở Hà nội không thích hợp cho người già. Mùa hè trời nóng như thiêu đốt, trong khi mùa đông lạnh đến xương tủy.
The weather in Hanoi is not favorable for the old. It is burning hot in summer while it chills to the bones in winter.
It is impossible to use informal style to translate a formal text. Instead of using “burning hot” , the translator should use “exceedingly hot”.
LINGUISTIC LEVELS
1. Formality
For example:
Mr. and Mrs. Jones request the pleasure of the company of Mr. and Mrs. Williams at dinner on Saturday, October 16th, at 7 o’clock.
13411 Wells Rivers Dr. Houston, TX. Friday, October 1st .
R.S.V.P
2. Informality
Dear Mrs. Brown,
The girls have persuaded me to arrange a little dance for them during the Christmas holidays, and we plan to have it on Friday the 17th . Will you and your daughters and your older boy give us the pleasure of your company on that evening at eight o’clock? We should like to see your husband also, but I seem to remember he doesn’t care for dancing; still if you can persuade him to come, we should be very pleased.
Yours,
Mary
3. Literary style
Charles Dickens is one of the world’s greatest novelists. He belongs to the brilliant school of 19th century critical realists. What we value most in Dickens’s works is his criticism of the English bourgeois society of his time with its evils and contrasts of wealth and poverty. The world he describes is that of the middle and lower classes particularly of London.
STYLES
1. Spoken styles
Example: Conversations
W: Would it be OK if I took a few hours off next Friday? My parents are coming to visit and I need to pick them up at the airport.
M: Yes, that should be fine. We do need to form a construction committee and start planning the company picnic next week, but there should be plenty of time for that.
W: Thanks. I’ll be happy to work late on Thursday if necessary.

2. Science styles
The patient’s eyes are first inspected in the daylight. The patient is seated in a chair, facing the window so that the illumination is uniform. A certain sequence should be observed in examination: the eyelids and the surrounding tissues are first inspected. Attention is paid to the width of the lid slit, angles of the eyelids, the positions of the eyelids, the conditions of lashes, etc.
3. Social sciences
Although fertility rates in poor countries have declined in recent years, the UN has estimated that the world’s population should stabilize at approximately 10.2 billion people by the year 2100, when the number dying will match the number being born. This figure is two and a quarter times the present world population. A long-held and popular belief is that population growth in poor countries is the major cause of poverty. The “population explosion”, it is argued, is wiping out any economic development which the poor countries may achieve.
3. Newspaper styles
- Brief news items
- Announcements
- Reports
- Advertisements
Notes: Some main characteristics of newspaper headlines are as follows.
1. Present tense = past events
2. Present participle = event in progress
3. To infinitive = future events
4. Past participle = passive voice
5. Nouns
6. Verb + noun
Example:
1. Japanese Professors Turn to Business
Các giáo sư Nhật chuyển sang kinh doanh
2. US President Visiting Vietnam
Tổng thống Hoa Kỳ đang thăm Việt Nam
3. Oil Price To Rise?
Giá dầu sẽ tăng
4. Three More Investment Projects Licensed This Year
Thêm ba dự án đầu tư nữa được cấp giấy phép trong năm nay
5. Investment Boom
Bùng nổ đầu tư
6. See You in Court
Hẹn gặp tại tòa
4. Official styles
- Business documents: Contracts, agreement
- Diplomatic documents
COMMERCIAL CONTRACT
NO. 02/KSVN-JMS/10
DATE: OCT 04, 2010
Today, Oct 04th, 2010 at KISOO VINA CO., LTD ‘s office, We hereby :
THE SELLER : KISOO VINA CO., LTD
1B Hamlet , An Phu Village, Thuan An Dist., Binh Duong Province, VIETNAM
Tel. : (84-0650) 3713922 Fax. : (84-0650) 3713923
Represented by Mr. KIM SUNG JOON Title: G.Director
Hereinafter called Party A
THE BUYER :: JUNGBOLD & MORENO – STOLZ GMBH (Buyer)
AM Flossbach 15,67112 Mutterstadt,GERMANY
Tel.: 0049-0-6234-9261-463 Fax: 0049-0-6234-9261-450
Represented by Mr. ALEXANDER MORENO-STOZ Title: G.Director
Hereinafter called Party B
After careful discussion, the two parties agreed to sign the sales contract with the following terms and conditions :
ARTICLE 1: COMMODITY – QUANTITY – UNIT PRICE :
In words : US dollars ninety two thousand three hundred and one and cents thirty.
ARTICLE 2 : SHIPMENT TERM :
- Shipment date : Not later than Dec 30, 2010 .
- Partial shipments are allowed.
- Destination : Germany
- More or less : 3% allowed on the quantity and total amount.
- Shipments will be effected by party A under FOB HCMC term to any Port/Airport of Ho Chi Minh City.
- Shipping service(by sea or by air) : nominated by party B.
ARTICLE 3 : PAYMENT TERM:
In USD under IRR L/C at sight by party B to party A’s account No. USD 240-67-022170 at party A’s advising bank : KISOO VINA CO. LTD
ADVISING BANK : BANK FOR FOREIGN TRADE OF VIET NAM, SONG THAN BRANCH (VIETCOMBANK).
NO. 01, TRUONG SON HIGHWAY, AN BINH VILLAGE, DI AN DIST., BINH DUONG PROVINCE, VIETNAM.
TEL : (08) 3 724 1627 FAX : (08) 3 724 1498
ACCOUNT NO: 046.137.3747283 (USD)
SWIFT CODE : BFTV VNVX 007 - CHIPS UID : CH343773
CIF NO : 2678137.
With following payment term:
- IRR L/C at sight payment 15 days after shipment.
- Shipment Insurance : to be effected by party B
- Requested documents for payment : invoice, packing list, Bill of Loading or Airway Bill, certificate of origin for textiles, export license, test report.
ARTICLE 4 : RESPONSIBILITY OF EACH PARTY :
RESPONSIBILITY OF PARTY A:
Party A will take full responsibility of the quality of garments, export standard of packing, as well as delivery time for each style, which is specified in the Article 2.
- Party A guarantees the absence of harmful substances in their textiles and that entire production is made according to regulations EU and AZO free
Party A has to take responsibility of finishing license of im-ex procedures under Viet Nam laws.
2. RESPONSIBILITY OF PARTY B:
- Party B is responsible for supply of correct samples, correct patterns as well as all technical instructions to meet party A’s production capacity and help party A to keep delivery time.
ARTICLE 5 : COMMITMENTS :
- Both parties will guarantee to follow strictly all articles shown in the contract. Any changes of a single term or condition must be made by written form and countersigned by authorised representatives of each party.
- Disputes or controversies, if any, should be settled by amicable and mutually helpful negotiations .
This contract comes into effect from the signing date until Feb 20, 2011.
This contract is made in 04 English originals with the same value, two of which will be kept by each party for further execution.
For the SELLER For the BUYER
KISOO VINA CO., LTD JMS HANDELS GMBH & CO.KG
Problems of Untranslatability
When difficulties are encountered by the translator, the whole issue of the untranslatability of the text is raised. Catford distinguishes two types of untranslatability, which he terms linguistic and cultural. On the linguistic level, untranslatability occurs when there is no lexical or syntactical substitute in the TL for an SL item, whereas culture untranslatability is due to the absence in the TL culture of a relevant situational feature for the SL text.


The following are some examples of linguistic and cultural untranslatability.
1. Linguistic untranslatability
Canh toàn quốc (the word `quốc` is untranslatable 
Da trắng vỗ bì bạch
2. Cultural Untranslatability
- phở, áo dài, cải lương, chèo, tuồng
Cultural untranslatability falls on the cultural terms and idiomatic expressions which have no equivalents in the TL culture.

Some more:
Nó yêu Thủy tức là yêu nước.
Mầy không yêu Thủy tức là không yêu nước
Ba tôi hy sinh vì nước (nhậu sỉn té sông chết), mẹ tôi bán nước nuôi chúng tôi ăn học (bán nước mía, cà phê, giải khát,…)
- Dan: No see mother. (No thấy mẹ)
In hit line
Out how time
Principles of Translation
a. Meaning. The translation should reflect accurately the meaning of original text. Nothing should be arbitrarily added or removed.
b. Form. The ordering of words and ideas in the translation should match the originals as closely as possible. When in doubt, underline in the original text the words on which the main stress falls.




c. Register. Language often differ greatly in their levels of formality in a given context. To resolve these differences, the translator must distinguish between formal or fixed expressions and personal expressions, in which the writer sets the tone.
d. Source language influence. One of the most frequent criticisms of translation is that “it doesn`t sound natural”. This is because the translator`s thoughts and choice of words are too strongly influenced by the original text.


A good way of avoiding the SL influence is to translate naturally using the idiomatic target language.
e. Style and clarity. The translator should not change the style of the original, but if the text is sloppily written, or full of repetitions, the translator may, for the reader`s sake, correct the defects.
f. Idiom. Idiomatic expressions are notoriously untranslatable. These include similes, metaphors, proverbs and saying, jargon, slang and colloquialisms and phrasal verbs. If the expressions can not be directly translated, try any of the following:
- Retain the original word, in inverted commas: `yumcha` , `phở` , `chèo`

Retain the original expression with a literal explanation in brackets:
            `áo dài` (a long close-fitting blouse)
            `thồ` (a taxi bike or a taxi motorbike...)
            `acre` (đơn vị đo diện tích tương đương 4000m2)
The golden rule is: if the idiom does not work in the L1, do not force it into translation.
RELATIVE CLAUSE
You should not translate relative (adjective) clause from English into Vietnamese.
Ex: I also want to extend a special welcome to the Ambassadors and Heads of Agencies who are attending the annual CG for the first time. (Tôi cũng muốn gửi lời chào mừng đặc biệt đến các Đại sứ và Trưởng các cơ quan tham dự Hội nghị Nhóm Tư vấn thường niên lần đầu tiên.

The work includes preparing several documents that will form the basis for our discussion. (Công việc bao gồm việc chuẩn bị một số tài liệu làm cơ sở cho các phiên thảo luận của chúng ta).
I want to thank Ambassadors and development partners who have also contributed in different ways to the preparations. (Tôi muốn cảm ơn các vị Đại sứ và các đối tác phát triển vì đã đóng góp bằng nhiều cách khác nhau cho quá trình chuẩn bị).
Sentence structure
Sentence structure is very important. Mastering it, we are able to translate its meaning.
Main sentence structure:
Phrase + S + V + O/C + Phrase.
We must identify S and V (they are keys in a sentence structure).
Phrases may be put in the beginning or in the end.
Phrases may prepositional, infinitive, present participle or past participle. Phrases are used to enlarge the main elements (S, V, O/C)
Verbs must be conjugated in a proper tense.
When we see no subject, we should use impersonal sentences with “It be…” or “There be…”
Ex: Cần phải xây thêm trường học.
It is necessary to build more schools.
Ex: Có nhiều xe cộ ở trung tâm thành phố.
There are a lot vehicles in the city center.
In English phrases are used in stead of clauses, especially adverb and adjective clauses.
Ex: When she came home, she rushed into the kitchen.
Coming home, she rushed into the kitchen.
He likes music which was composed by Bach.
> He likes music composed by Bach.
When you write English, you must use English structures.
When you write Vietnamese, you must use Vietnamese structures.
Ex: Cô ta thích tiêu tiền cho quần áo.
She likes to spend money on clothes.
Họ mất 20 năm để xây đền Taj Mahal.
It took them twenty years to build the Taj Mahal.
Bị bệnh, cô ta phải uống thuốc.
Being ill, she has to take some medicine.
Mãi cho đến khi anh ta ba mươi tuổi anh ta mới lập gia đình.
He was not married until he was thirty years old.
A strong sense of urgency: sự thúc giục cấp bách.
(We ignore sense of)
What is needed next is strong political will that will bring a strong sense of urgency to concretizing the details of this restructuring and driving implementation in a credible way.






Good luck!
 
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